MAT-MATIK Politics

How many times have each of our current MPs lompat party? We check all 222 of them

2020 has proven to be a pretty wild year – for the whole world, and especially for Malaysians. To start with, just barely after New Year, our country was plunged into a political crisis and Muhyiddin Yassin came out the unexpected winner…and we thought that would have been the end of it. But that’s not the case, because following that, a number of Malaysian states were placed into their own versions of crises, such as Selangor and Melaka.

And it seemed that Sabah has fallen victim to the pattern as well, when Sabah Chief Minister Shafie Apdal went ahead and dissolved the state assembly on the 29th of July, 2020. This came shortly after Shafie’s predecessor Musa Aman claimed that he had the numbers to form a new government under the Perikatan Nasional branding. So now, Sabah’s prepped for a snap elections to elect a whole new state assembly 60 days after its dissolution.

“I am eligible to be appointed as Sabah chief minister by the governor as I have the support of the majority (of state representatives).” – Musa, as quoted from Malaysiakini

But among all these state governments collapsing, there’s one thing in common: party-hopping. It seemed that many of our MPs deemed it A-okay just become kataks and leap from one party to another, garnering criticism from politicians and the rakyat alike.

GIF from Giphy

So today, we shall see the level of katak-ness among our current MPs who are in office, categorizing them as:

  • Katak king – those who’ve jumped three times or more
  • Katak-in-training – those who’ve jumped once or twice 
  • Katak di bawah tempurung – those who’ve never jumped

However, do be aware that some of our MPs have at times left their parties and become independent MPs, but since they’re still technically in politics, we’ll count that as half a time. Also, we’re not gonna include Musa Aman, because he’s, you know, not an MP.

 

Katak king – when you’ve jumped so many times, you might as well be on top of KLCC

Contrary to popular belief, out of 222 MPs, only five of them have actually hopped parties for three times or more, making up only 2.5% of them! The highest number of jumps is 5, and there are two MPs tied for that spot. But let’s start with…

1. Jeffrey Kitingan (5 times) 

Image from The Star

Jeffrey Kitingan’s kinda made a name for himself as the resident katak having jumped parties five times in his entire political career. He started his political career with the United Sabah Party (PBS) in 1990, only to quit in 1994 to join the People’s Justice Front (AKAR). When he failed to garner a leadership position in AKAR, he gave up and rejoined PBS in 1999.

But then, he quit again in 2000, to try his luck with parties like United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation (UPKO), but those didn’t work out for him. He apparently had a brief membership in UMNO, but the membership was revoked soon after. Kitingan would go on to be party-less for quite some time until Anwar Ibrahim’s People’s Justice Party (PKR) accepted him in 2006. And you’d think that’d be the end of it, but no, Kitingan had to go out on a limb and quit PKR to establish a Sabahan branch of State Reform Party (STAR) in 2012, seemingly to fight for the rights of Sabah and Sarawak. So, you see, no one’s more deserving of the Katak King title than him.

And tying with him is actually someone from the neighboring state…

2. Baru Bian (5 times)

Image from The Star

Ah, two veteran jumpers on the other side of the coast, what a match. We’ve actually written about him before, but let us just tell you about his jumping history briefly. He joined the Sarawak Native People’s Party (PBDS) in 1987, but when PBDS joined hands with UMNO later on, he decided to quit and become independent in 2004, only to join Malaysian Dayak Congress (MDC) in 2005. A year later, he defected again to the Sarawak National Party (SNAP).

Amidst his career in the past as a politician, he’s never once won an election. That was, until he defected to PKR and won for the first time in 2008. For more than a decade, he remained a PKR MP, until this year, when he was booted out of PKR with Azmin Ali and gang. However, unlike Azmin and gang, he didn’t go to PPBM – instead, he went the other way to the arms of the United Sarawak Party (PSB) this year.

3. Larry Sng Wei Shien (4 times): PBDS > Sarawak Peoples’ Party (PRS) (2004) > Independent (2007) > Sarawak Workers’ Party (SWP) (2012) > Independent (2016) > PKR (2018)

4. Mohd Anuar Mohd Tahir (3 times): UMNO > PKR (1999) > Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) (2003) > National Trust Party (Amanah) (2015)

5. Kamaruddin Jaafar (3 times): UMNO > PAS (1999) > PKR (2015) > PPBM (2020)

 

Katak-in-training – they’re getting there, but not on top of KLCC yet

Okay, so even though we only have five katak kings, we found that there’s quite a sum of our MPs who’ve jumped at least once, so we suppose that makes them kataks-in-training, as in they’re not quite at a legendary level of katak-ness yet, but if they keep up with it, they might as well be. Putting them all together, we calculated that there are already 56 MPs out of 222 that have party-hopped at least once, which is around 25% of our total MPs. Of course, there’s no other person we can start this category with other than…

6. Azmin Ali (2 times) 

Oh, who can forget about him? The man who’s popularly blamed for the downfall of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) government. Azmin first started out in UMNO when he was handpicked by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad to become Anwar Ibrahim’s Special Officer. But then he left UMNO to found PKR in 1998 after Anwar was imprisoned.

Things went kinda well, until Azmin and Anwar got into verbal fisticuffs and then…you know the rest of the story. When the whole PH government went down earlier this year, Azmin was sacked from PKR, along with 10 other people, and he subsequently joined the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (PPBM). In total, Azmin’s only jumped parties 2 times, so that kinda makes him a Katak-in-training.

7. Shafie Apdal (2 times): United Sabah National Organization (USNO) > UMNO (1995) > Warisan (2016)

8. Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah (2 times): UMNO > Spirit of 46 Malay Party (S46) (1988) > UMNO (1998)

9. Christina Liew Chin Jin (2 times): PBS > Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) (1995) > PKR (1999)

10. Aaron Ago Dagang (2 times): PBDS > Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP) (2006) > PRS (2011)

11. Saifuddin Abdullah (2 times): UMNO > PKR (2015) > PPBM (2020)

12. Tiong King Sing (2 times): SNAP > SPDP (2002) > PDP (2017)

13. Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (1.5 times)

Image from Discover KL

If we’re gonna talk about this man’s career, it’s gonna take us ten articles and a half, but we suppose y’all already know about his life and time as a Malaysian politician anyway. In short, Mahathir joined up UMNO In short, Mahathir joined UMNO in 1946, and kinda became really powerful after that.

And then he had moments of activeness and inactiveness after his retirement from the PM seat, until he became so unhappy with Najib Razak’s performance as PM that he straight up quit from UMNO and formed his own opposition party PPBM, joining up with PKR and DAP as the PH coalition. And he became PM again in 2018 – that was, until PH collapsed shortly after this year. Soon after, amidst a power struggle with his successor Muhyiddin, Mahathir was subsequently sacked from PPBM all together and became an independent politician.

14. Mukhriz Mahathir (1.5 times): UMNO > PPBM (2016) > Independent (2020)

15. Ronald Kiandee (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

16. Noor Azmi Ghazali (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2018)

17. Shabudin Yahaya (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

18. Abdul Latiff Ahmad (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

19. Abdul Rahim Bakri (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

20. Azizah Mohd Dun (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

21. Hamzah Zainudin (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

22. Ikmal Hisham Abdul Aziz (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

23. Mas Ermieyati Samsudin (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

24. Rosol Wahid (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

25. Fasiah Fakeh (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

26. Yamani Hafez Musa (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

27. Zakaria Mohd Idris (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2019)

28. Shahruddin Md Salleh (1.5 times): UMNO > PPBM (2016) > Independent (2020)

29. Amiruddin Hamzah (1.5 times): PAS > PPBM (2017) > Independent (2020)

30. Syed Abu Hussin Hafiz (1.5 times): UMNO > Independent (2018) > PPBM (2020)

31. Ahmad Faizal Azumu (1 time): UMNO > PPBM (2017)

32. Ali Biju (1 time): PKR > PPBM (2020)

33. Zuraida Kamaruddin (1 time): PKR > PPBM (2020)

34. Mansor Othman (1 time): PKR > PPBM (2020)

35. Mohd Rashid Hasnon (1 time): PKR > PPBM (2020)

36. Edmund Santhara Kumar (1 time): PKR > PPBM (2020)

37. Willie Mongin (1 time): PKR > PPBM (2020)

38. Jonathan Yasin (1): PKR > PPBM (2020)

39. Mustapa Mohamed (1 time): UMNO > PPBM (2018)

40. Mohamad Sabu (1 time)

We couldn’t help it. GIF from Tenor

Apart from being that fella who threw a microphone, Mat Sabu’s also the founder of Amanah in 2015. This came after he and his cohort disagreed with PAS leadership at the time and decided to build their own Islamic party.

41. Darell Leiking (1 time): PKR > Warisan (2016)

42. Anwar Ibrahim (1 time) 

Image from SCMP

Much like a lot of politicians, Anwar started his political career with UMNO in 1982 and held a number of ministerial positions while he was there. However, he soon started clashing the Prime Minister at the time Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, and he ended up getting expelled from UMNO in 1998 and even got thrown into jail later on. Before he was thrown into jail though, Anwar managed to build PKR and has stayed with it since.

43. Dr. Dzulkefly Ahmad (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2015)

44. Hasanuddin Mohd Yunus (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2015)

45. Khalid Samad (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2015)

46. Mahfuz Omar (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2017)

47. Mohamed Hanipa Maidin (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2015)

48. Mohd Hatta Ramli (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2015)

49. Mujahid Yusof Rawa (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2015)

50. Salahuddin Ayub (1 time): PAS > Amanah (2015)

51. Muhyiddin Yassin (1 time) 

Image from Malaymail

Just like Anwar and Mahathir, our current PM used to be an UMNO member, and he made it pretty high on the totem pole at that. However, it seemed that he got fired from UMNO for calling out Najib and his 1MDB scandal in 2015. But soon after that, he joined hands with Mahathir and became a founding member of PPBM. That relationship, as we all know, sored shortly after.

52. Rina Harun (1 time): UMNO > PPBM (2016)

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53. Saifuddin Nasution Ismail (1 time): UMNO > PKR (1999)

54. Tan Yee Kew (1 time): MCA > PKR (2008)

55. Muslimin Yahya (1 time): UMNO > PPBM (2018)

56. Mohammad Ketapi (1 time): PBS > Warisan (2018)

57. Masir Kujat (1 time): PRS > PSB (2019)

58. Isnaraissah Munirah Majilis (1 time): PKR > Warisan (2016)

59. Hassan Abdul Karim (1 time): Malaysian People’s Party (PRM) > PKR (2009)

60. Rozman Isli (1 time): UMNO > Warisan (2018)

61. Liew Vui Keong (1 time): Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) > Warisan (2018)

 

Katak di bawah tempurung – they barely know how to jump

While it’s a little alarming that around 27.5% of our politicians have kinda made it a habit to switch parties whenever they feel like it, you’ll perhaps find it comforting to know that the remaining 161 of our MPs seem to be pretty loyal to their parties, which makes up 72% of our Dewan Rakyat MPs. We can basically categorize them as katak di bawah tempurung, and have barely seen the world of party-hopping yet.

62. Mazslee Malik (0.5 time)

Image from The Star

For someone who stirred up quite a lot of controversy during his stint as an Education Minister – black shoes, anyone – you can say that Maszlee actually seems to be quite a loyal guy. He joined PPBM in 2018 and has shown himself to be loyal to Mahathir all the while. He only had no choice but to become an independent because PPBM decided to boot him out this year.

63. Syed Saddiq Abdul Rahman (0.5 time): PPBM > Independent (2020)

64. Jugah Muyang (0.5 time): PKR > Independent (2020)

65. Richard Riot Jaem (Never): Sarawak United People’s Party (SUPP)

66. Maximus Ongkili (Never): PBS

67. Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim (Never): UMNO

68. Abdul Latiff Abdul Rahman (Never): PAS

69. Abdullah Sani Abdul Hamid (Never): PKR

70. Dr. Adham Baba (Never): UMNO

71. Ahmad Amzad Hashim (Never): UMNO

72. Ahmad Fadhli Shaari (Never): PAS

73. Ahmad Fahmi Mohamad Fahzil (Never): PKR

74. Ahmad Hamzah (Never): UMNO

75. Ahmad Hassan (Never): Warisan

76. Ahmad Jazlan Yaakob (Never): UMNO

77. Ahmad Johnie Zawawi (Never): PBB

78. Ahmad Marzuk Shaary (Never): PAS

79. Ahmad Nazlan Idris (Never): UMNO

80. Ahmad Zahid Hamidi (Never): UMNO

81. Ahmad Tarmizi Sulaiman (Never): PAS

82. Akmal Nasrullah Mohd Nasir (Never): PKR

83. Alexander Nanta Linggi (Never): PBB

84. Alice Lau Kiong Yieng (Never): DAP

85. Anyi Ngau (Never): Progressive Democratic Party (PDP)

86. Arthur Joseph Kurup (Never): PBRS

87. Awang Husaini Sahari (Never): PKR

88. Azalina Othman Said (Never): UMNO

89. Dr. Azman Ismail (Never): PKR

90. Bung Moktar Radin (Never)

You may know him as that dude who cursed in Dewan Rakyat – we like to call him The Bung – or just making a lot of noise in general, but at least Bung’s always stayed where he is – UMNO – and never really went anywhere…right?

91. Ahmad Maslan (Never): UMNO

92. Cha Kee Chin (Never): DAP

93.Chan Foong Hin (Never): DAP

94. Chan Ming Kai (Never): PKR

95. Chang Lih Kang (Never): PKR

96. Charles Santiago (Never): DAP

97. Che Abdullah Mat Nawi (Never): PAS

98. Che Alias Hamid (Never): PAS

99. Chong Chieng Jen (Never): DAP

100. Steven Choong Shiau Yoon (Never): PKR

101. Chow Kon Yeow (Never): DAP

102. Dr. Lee Boon Chye (Never): PKR

103. Eddin Syazlee Shith (Never): PPBM

104. Fadillah Yusof (Never): PBB

105. Fong Kui Lun (Never): DAP

106. Fuziah Salleh (Never): PKR

107. Gobind Singh Deo (Never): DAP

108. Abdul Hadi Awang (Never)

Image from FMT

While Hadi technically first joined politics when he participated in Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM), which was ironically once led by Anwar, his actual political career began with PAS in 1964. Since then, he made his way up the ranks rather quickly, where he’s now PAS president, and he doesn’t seem to be showing any signs of hopping party anytime soon.

109. Haji Abdul Rahman Haji Mohamed (Never): UMNO

110. Annuar Musa (Never): UMNO

111. Haji Awang Hashim (Never): PAS

112. Haji Tajuddin Abdul Rahman (Never): UMNO

113. Halimah Mohamed Sadique (Never): UMNO

114. Hanifah Hajar Taib (Never): PBB

115. Hannah Yeoh (Never): DAP

116. Hasan Arifin (Never): UMNO

117. Hasan Bahrom (Never): Amanah

118. Hasbi Habibollah (Never): PBB

119. Hasbullah Osman (Never): UMNO

120. Henry Sum Agong (Never): PBB

121. Hishammuddin Hussein (Never): UMNO

122. Idris Jusoh (Never): UMNO

123. Ismail Mohamed Said (Never): UMNO

124. Ismail Muttalib (Never): UMNO

125. Ismail Sabri Yaakob (Never): UMNO

126. Jalaludin Alias (Never): UMNO

127. Johari Abdul (Never): PKR

128. Karupaiya Muthusamy (Never): PKR

129. Kasthuriraani Patto (Never): DAP

130. Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen (Never): DAP

131. Kesavan Subramaniam (Never): PKR

132. Khairy Jamaluddin (Never)

Image from UNRESERVED Media

You would be glad to know that our nation’s very own ‘Tony Stark‘ has never wavered in his loyalty to UMNO ever since he joined UMNO as former PM’s Abdullah Badawi’s Special Officer in 1999. Even though there have been rumors of him switching over to PPBM, he had quickly brushed them off and remained steadfast with UMNO.

133. Khoo Poay Tiong (Never): DAP

134. M. Kulasegaran (Never): DAP

135. June Leow Hsiad Hui (Never): PKR

136. Lim Guan Eng (Never)

Given that LGE’s father is Lim Kit Siang, it probably comes to no surprise that he’ll follow his father’s footsteps as a politician and start it out in DAP. And since then, he’s stuck with DAP since, even once winning a historic general elections and getting to be Finance Minister, but of course, that stint was kinda short. Now, though, he’s once again become part of the opposition, still as a DAP representative.

137. Lim Kit Siang (Never): DAP

138. Lim Lip Eng (Never): DAP

139. Anthony Loke Siew Fook (Never): DAP

140. Lukanisman Awang Sauni (Never): PBB

141. Ma’mun Sulaiman (Never): Warisan

142. Mahdzir Khalid (Never): UMNO

143. Maria Chin (Never): PKR

144. Mastura Mohd Yazid (Never): UMNO

145. Michael Teo Yu Keng (Never): PKR

146. Mohamad Alamin (Never): UMNO

147. Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz (Never): UMNO

148. Mohd Aziz Jamman (Never): Warisan

149. Mohd Nizar Zakaria (Never): UMNO

150. Mohd Salim Sharif (Never): UMNO

151. Mohd Khairuddin Aman Razali (Never): PAS

152. Najib Razak (Never)

Image from SelangorKini

In case y’all didn’t know – also, what? – Najib’s the son of Malaysia’s second PM Abdul Razak Hussein. And after his father’s death in the 1970s, he soon rose to prominence as a young UMNO politician. And he seemed to have had a decent future built ahead for him, where he ended up becoming Malaysia’s 6th PM, until he was embroiled in a series of scandals – y’all know what scandals. However, even with his legal troubles, Najib’s turned out to be one of most vocal voices in UMNO while the PH coalition was in charge, so much so that he’s given the nickname #Bossku.

153. Mohd Redzuan Mohd Yusof (Never): PPBM

154. Mohd Shahar Abdullah (Never): UMNO

155. Mordi Bimol (Never): DAP

156. Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik (Never): PKR

157. Nancy Shukri (Never): PBB

158. Natrah Ismail (Never): PKR

159. Nga Kor Ming (Never): DAP

160. Ngeh Koo Han (Never): DAP

161. Nik Mohamad Abduh Nik Aziz (Never): PAS

162. Nik Muhammad Zawawi Salleh (Never): PAS

163. Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad (Never): PKR

164. Noh Omar (Never): UMNO

165. Noor Amin Ahmad (Never): PKR

166. Noorita Sual (Never): DAP

167. Noor Azrina Surip (Never): PKR

168. Noraini Ahmad (Never): UMNO

169. Nurul Izzah Anwar (Never): PKR

170. Ong Kian Ming (Never): DAP

171. Oscar Ling Chai Yew (Never): DAP

172. Pang Hok Liong (Never): DAP

173. Prabakaran Parameswaran (Never): Independent

174. Tony Pua (Never): DAP

175. Ramli Mohd Nor (Never): UMNO

176. Ramkarpal Singh (Never): DAP

177. Reezal Merican Naina Merican (Never): UMNO

178. Robert Lawson Chuat Vincent Entering (Never): PBB

179. Rohani Abdul Karim (Never): PBB

180. Rubiah Wang (Never): PBB

181. Rusnah Aluai (Never): PKR

182. Sabri Azit (Never): PAS

183. RSN Rayer (Never): DAP

184. Saravanan Murugan (Never): Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC)

185. Shaharizukirnain Abdul Kadir (Never): PAS

186. Shahidan Kassim (Never): UMNO

187. Shamsul Anuar Nasarah (Never): UMNO

188. Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin (Never): PKR

189. Steven Sim Chee Keong (Never): DAP

190. Sim Tze Tzin (Never): PKR

191. Siti Zailah Mohd Yusoff (Never): PAS

192. V. Sivakumar (Never): DAP

193. Sivarasa K. Rasiah (Never): PKR

194. Su Keong Siong (Never): DAP

195. Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh (Never): PKR

196. Takiyuddin Hassan (Never): PAS

197. Tan Kok Wai (Never): DAP

198. Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji (Never)DAP

199. Teh Kok Lim (Never): DAP

200. Tengku Adnan Tengku mansor (Never): UMNO

201. Teo Nie Ching (Never): DAP

202. Teresa Kok (Never): DAP

203. Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man (Never): PAS

204. Wilson Ugak Kumbong (Never): PRS

205. Vivian Wong Shir Yee (Never): DAP

206. Wan Azizah Wan Ismail (Never)

Image from The Star

Yes, you guys, PKR is like a family dynasty now, what with Anwar, Nurul Izzah, and Wan Azizah at the helm of it. You see, when her husband was imprisoned in 1998, Wan Azizah took over the leadership of PKR and pretty much helped build it into what it is today, with the help of people like Azmin and her daughter, and she’s been there ever since.

207. Wan Hassan Mohd Ramli (Never): PAS

208. Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar (Never): PBB

209. Wee Jeck Seng (Never): MCA

210. Wee Ka Siong (Never): MCA

211. Wilfred Madius Tangau (Never): UPKO

212. William Leong Jee Keen (Never): PKR

213. Wong Ling Biu (Never): DAP

214. Wong Chen (Never): PKR

215. Wong Hon Wai (Never): DAP

216. Wong Kah Woh (Never): DAP

217. Wong Shu Qi (Never): DAP

218. Wong Tack (Never): DAP

219. Xavier Jayakumar (Never): PKR

220. Yeo Bee Yin (Never): DAP

221. Yusuf Abd Wahab (Never): PBB

222. Zahidi Zainul Abidin (Never): UMNO

 

The MPs who jumped parties are actually not that high

When you look at the overall numbers, it sure doesn’t seem like there’s that many MPs who’ve switched parties throughout their political careers. But the fact that there are already 27.5% of our MPs who have switched parties is kinda disconcerting. In fact, party-hopping has become so commonplace here that Malaysia’s even named as a place where it happens frequently on Wikipedia.

Didja think we were lying? Screenshot from Wikipedia

However, do note that we only talked about party-hopping here and not about switching political affiliations, like switching support from PH to PN, because that’s a whole other story all together.

But why is party-hopping such a big deal in the first place? Well, when MPs switch their loyalties so easily, it can mean many things, such as voters losing trust in their MPs or parties and just political instability in general. Plus, some have also claimed that party-hopping is against the constitution.

“If an elected representative decides to switch to a new party as he/she exercises the right to association, citizens should be allowed to automatically exercise their right to vote and choose a representative again.” – Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM), as quoted from Malaymail

Original image from Tumblr

Now, we don’t really know for sure whether there will be more MPs switching parties again in the future. But for now, many politicians and activists alike are looking for ways to enact an anti-party-hopping law to prevent something like this from occurring again. Then again, talk of enacting a law like that has been going on for quite some time with nothing to show for it, so there’s no telling whether it will work this time around.

Before we end this article, given that we had to literally look at 222 MPs – the writer’s brain dead now – we might have missed out on a jump or two. If we did, please do let us know!

 

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